Kelud Eruption History (Kelut)

A. Morphology Kelud
This volcano is included in the type stratovulkan (strato-volcano) with characteristics of an explosive eruption. Like many other volcanoes in Java, Kelud formed by the subduction of the Indo-Australian continental plate against the Eurasian plate.
kelud 1902

Kelud is one of the special mountain in East Java because it is sudden eruptions, very explosive and destructive.

It is evident in the historical record, that Kelud including mountain in Indonesia, which never takes many lives of thousands, but the type of eruption like this Kelud quickly subsided.

After eruptions, Kelud usually forming a crater width which is then filled with rainwater to form a crater lake.

The tops of which there is now a remnant of a major eruption in the past that brought down the top of the ancient.
Wall on the southwest side open so complex collapsed crater opened in that direction.
Kelud is the highest peak, positioned slightly to the northeast of the crater. Other peaks are 'Peak Gajahmungkur' on the west side and the 'Peak chippy' on the south side.
That's just one volcano, named Kelud. Indonesia is rich in volcanoes, and even became the country's most active volcanoes are universal.
Of the 127 volcanoes, half of the new intensively monitored. DR. Surono an expert on Indonesian volcanologist, likens the process of monitoring volcanoes in Indonesia, such as putting a small child on the edge of the pool.
"If we are careless, definitely go in the pool. If so, arguably due to chance, "said Surono.
Kelud eruption this time once again teach the importance of recognizing the position of the archipelago which circled the Ring of Fire, which requires us to keep alert.
Moreover, the character and nature of the mountain can also be changed. Earth's volcanoes are living organisms.
They are born, grow up, fall asleep, dead, then woke up and erupt. Volcano continues to evolve. Similarly, should we who live around him.

B.Activity Kelud History
Since the 15th century, Kelud has claimed more than 15,000 lives. The explosion was in 1586 more than 10,000 fatalities jiwa.Sebuah system to divert the lava flow has been made extensively in 1926 and still functioning until now after the eruption in 1919 killed up to 5110 lives due to cold lava flood swept settlements.
kelud 2012
In the 20th century, Kelud recorded erupted in 1901, 1919 (1 May), 1951 (August 31), 1966 (26 April), and 1990 (February 10-March 13). This pattern brings experts volcano on 15-year cycle for this eruption. Entering the 21st century, the mountain erupted in 2007 and 13 to 14 February 2014. This frequency change occurs due to the formation of lava plug in the mouth of the crater. Almost all recorded eruption is of short duration (2 days or less) and the type of explosive (VEI max. 4), except in 1990 and 2007 eruptions. 

C.Pre eruption of the 20th Century
The first and oldest effort in recorded history to overcome Kelud lava is building spatula.
Development spatula (or canal times) this is from Konto River to River Harinjing or now known as River Village Serinjing Siman, District Kepung, Kediri. (Kelud Revolution of Volcano, special reports Ring of Fire Expedition Compass, January 21, 2012).
magma flow

Inscription Harinjing or also called 'Sukabumi' are found around the village Siman noted that effort. Inscription with this year's figures were made approximately 921 AD during the reign of Tulodong

The inscription contains information about the construction of the dam (first dawuhan) and river channels (dharmma times), both built in the year 804 AD.
The artificial canal is currently known as Harinjing River, now called River Serinjing.
Meanwhile, since the year 1300 AD, a new record that is actively erupting Kelud has a range of a relatively short time (9-25 years), making it the volcanoes that are harmful to humans.
Meanwhile, since the 15th century, Kelud has claimed more than 15,000 lives.
Then on the next Kelud eruption in 1586 BC, there has claimed more than 10,000 people!                                                             
D. The eruption of the 20th century
In the 20th century, the eruption of Mount Kelud recorded has erupted five times, ie in the year: 1901,1919,1951,1966,1990,
This pattern brings experts to the volcano '15th annual cycle' for this eruption. Besides Hugo Cool in 1907 commissioned a dig a channel through the dike or the western part of the crater wall. The effort was successfully issued 4.3 million cubic meters of water.

1. Eruption 1919
When Kelud erupted in 1919, the volume of the crater lake water when it reaches 40 million cubic meters. The eruption in 1919 is among the most deadly since claimed up to 5,160 lives. Deadly massive eruption in 1919 is also damaging to 15,000 hectares of productive land.

It happened due to the lava flow Kelud pouring down until it reaches a distance of 38 km beneath it, although at times the Rhinos have built retaining weir lava since 1905 but can not accommodate.
Since the eruption of the system is then constructed drainage channel tunnel Crater Lake.
A system to divert the lava flow has been made extensively in 1926 and completed in 1926.
Overall built seven tunnels and still functioning until a few years in the future.

2. Eruption 1966
In the period after independence, the new tunnel was built again in addition to a long tunnel, after the eruption of 1966.

The new tunnel or tunnel that is 45 meters below the old tunnel.

Tunnel which was completed in 1967 it was named Tunnel Ampera. This channel serves to maintain the volume of the crater lake to keep 2.5 million cubic meters.

3. Eruption 1990

The eruption in 1990 lasted 45 days, from the date of February 10, 1990 until March 13, 1990. In this eruption, spewing Kelud 57.3 million cubic meters of volcanic material.
crater lake kelud 1980

Cold lava spread up to 24 kilometers from the crater lake and through the 11 rivers that disgorge from the mountain.

This eruption was shut Ampera Tunnel due to the large volume of volcanic material released by this mountain.

So it causes the Ampera Tunnel can not accommodate more number of existing materials, and clogged or blocked. Normalization process Ampera Tunnel was completed in 1994.

E. The eruption of the 21st Century
21st century, Kelud two times experienced eruption, in 2007. and 2014
Seen in this eruption compared to previous eruptions, there has been a change in the frequency of eruptions Kelud in the 21st century.

This eruption frequency change occurs due to the formation of lava plug located at the mouth of the crater of Kelud. Due to the blockage by the lava, then the pressure of the magma pushes out, become clogged.

1. The eruption of 2007

Volcanic activity is increased in late September 2007 and continued until November of the same year. Symptoms characterized by increased water temperature of the crater lake, an increase in seismic tremors, and changes in the crater lake of greenish color to white turbid.

The specificity of this volcano is the crater lake (until the end of 2007) which makes very fluid lava eruptions and endanger the surrounding population.

Status "watch" (highest) issued by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation since October 16, 2007 which implicates the population within a radius of 10 km from the mountain (approximately 135,000 people) who live on the slopes of the volcano to evacuate. However, the eruption did not occur.

Surono never felt the bitterness of scorn when he evacuate, including the entire staff of the Post Monitoring Kelud in 2007.

Having had somewhat subsided, Kelud activity again increased since October 30, 2007 with the rapid rise in water temperature volcanic crater lakes and shallow seismicity.

On November 3, 2007 around 16:00 lake water temperature exceeds 74 degrees Celsius, well above the normal symptoms of the eruption of 40 degrees Celsius, causing the temperature gauge was broken.

Vibration amplitude tremors with large (more than 35mm) causing inspectors to evacuate, but returned no eruption.

On November 3, 2007 around 16:00 lake water temperature exceeds 74 degrees Celsius, well above the normal symptoms of the eruption of 40 degrees Celsius, causing the temperature gauge was broken.

Vibration amplitude tremors with large (more than 35mm) causing inspectors to evacuate, but returned no eruption.

Due to the high activity of the unique symptoms Kelud history with the advent of thick white smoke rising from the middle of the crater lake.

Then followed by the emergence of the lava dome of the middle of the crater lake since November 5, 2007, and the dome continues to "grow" up to size 100 m wide (see photo below).

As a result of water in the crater lake Kelud continue to evaporate due to the heat coming from the bottom, eventually shrinking lake and just a puddle.

Experts consider that the lava dome that is what has been clogging of magma that the eruption is not imminent. Energy to be used to encourage the eruption of lava domes rest on the previous eruption in the year 1990.

Since the incident energy release activity on the wane, and on November 8, 2007 Kelud status downgraded to "standby" (level 3).

As a result, the crater lake Kelud practical "lost" due to the emergence of a large lava dome. What was left was a small pool of water murky brown color on the south side of the lava dome.

2. Eruption 2014

Increased activity occurred Kelud began back in late 2013. On February 10, 2014, increased to standby status (Level III)
On February 13, 2014, before erupting, recorded Kelud has experienced a shallow volcanic earthquakes as much as 190 times, and volcanic earthquakes as much as 442 times at 12: 00-18: 00 pm
At 21:15 pm, the status becomes Caution. Preparations on disaster has begun. Regions around 5 km from the summit crater has been sterilized point of human activity. Then, the radius emptying human activity widened to 10 km from the summit.

According to the recommendations of the Center for Volcanology, Mitigation, and Geological Disaster (PVMBG), Wates region to be a place of refuge purposes residents living within a radius of up to 10 kilometers from the lava dome. Due to the type of explosive eruptions such as in 1990 (in 2007 the type effusive, in the form of magma flow) could happen.
Sure enough, there was the displacement, on February 13, 2014 at 22:50 eruption type of explosion (explosive).
Kelud volcanic ash ejected in the eruption terdahsyatnya, as high as 17 kilometers! And threw a pebble as far as 25 kilometers!
Heard the sound of explosions reported to the city of Solo and Yogyakarta (200 km), even Purbalingga (approximately 300 km), Central Java
At 02:00 AM, the eruption of Mount Kelud began to subside. However, to prevent unwanted, BMKG still expressed sterile area with a radius as far as 10 kilometers from the summit of Kelud remain valid.
In Madiun and Magetan visibility to motorists or car is only about 3-5 meters due to falling volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud so many motor vehicles are running very slowly.
kelud lightning 01Di other hand many users of vehicles or people around Madiun was disrupted by the eruption.
In Kelud eruptions since Thursday night to Friday morning, (13-14 February 2014), has led to two people killed in a crash while evacuating and made 100 248 people had to move away and evacuated with a minimum distance of 10 kilometers.
Meanwhile some of the airport on the island of Java was closed due to volcanic ash thick. Airports were closed including the airport in Surabaya, Malang, Yogyakarta, Semarang, Solo even Bandung.
As a result, hundreds of flights were canceled. Parties sky temple and the airline claimed a loss of billions of dollars.
Four to five activity recording tool in the Post Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) around Kelud, Kediri, East Java also damaged.
Tools such as seismographs were damaged buried by rocks and dust material which is only five kilometers from the mountain.
Damage to the disturbing PVMBG tool to monitor the activities of the office PVMBG Kelud displayed through the screen, does not function at all. So pertugas further monitoring with manual equipment.

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