MT.Merapi Climbing Route

Mount Merapi 2015
Climbing Mount Merapi Via New Selo
Selo village (1,560 masl) is included in the administrative region of Boyolali. The village is located at the foot of Mount Merapi (2,965 masl) which is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. To reach basecamp, when we will go from Solo Selo / Boyolali, we will go through the intersection "Surodanan" near the hospital "Pandan Arang" Boyolali.

We are to the west of the intersection toward Cepogo / Selo, after a winding road takes about 1.5 hours (public transport) then we get Cepogo. From Cepogo we headed to Selo,
If we walk, to get to basecamp climbers in the hamlet Plalangan less travel time is approximately 15 minutes, the way we've been through in the form of a pretty uphill asphalt road .. Amid the way to basecamp we will pass a small post on the side of the road, where you can your ascent report and pay the fees climbing, (2012; 4 thousand dollars per person).

journey continues by passing the fields of population up to approximately 30 minutes. At the beginning of this journey we passed lines form the dusty ground if it rains muddy and slippery in part because it became trench, along the way we can see the fields of population on either side. If lucky, we can see the Black Eagles (Ictinaetus malayensis), or Eagle Brontok (Spizaetus cirrhatus), endangered species that became extinct.

After nearly one hour journey we arrived at the gate "Merapi-Merbabu National Park", and continued to rise through the trail in the middle of the forest rimbunya bottom trim until arriving at the POS I (one). In this post there is a monument that is located on a ridge, the height of about 1.5 meters. From the post I journey continues towards the monument POS II, the path is steep and full of large rocks. journey to this post takes about 1.5 to 2 hours. In this post there is also a monument, the same as in the previous post. from here we live takes approximately 1 hour to get to Pasar Bubrah. Climbing terrain is similar to the previous. Pasar Bubrah ahead we will pass some memoriam located on a plateau into the top of a ridge. from here you stay down toward Pasar Bubrah (disbanded).
Pasar Bubrah

Pasar Bubrah is an expanse of rocks that are in the valley. Here we see two pieces of the peak. on the left is the path to the crater woro. And when straight ahead is the path leading to the top.  to the summit takes about 1 hour with through very steep terrain and sandy. Typically the climbers practice scrambling techniques to toward the top, because the terrain encountered rocky sand is prone to landslides. We'd better be careful because strong winds can come at any time, as well as the danger of possible rock slide that trampled by climbers above us. Climbing from Basecamp Selo (Plalangan) to the summit of Mount Merapi takes about 4-6 hours and downs takes about 3-4 hours per street.

Lawu Eruption History

Lawu last erupted on November 28, 1885. Historical records published by the Smithsonian Institution by several references,
IAVCEI, 1973-80.
Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World.
IAVCEI Data Sheets,
Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's interior;
Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia.
Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields,
Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271;
Taverne N J M, 1926.
Vulkanstudien op Java.
Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132;
Van Bemmelen R W, 1949b.
The Geology of Indonesia.
The Hague: Government Printing Office, v 1, 732 p.
Mentioned, Lawu said to have erupted on May 1, 1752, and 28 November 1885, but this information can not be confirmed by the data strong references.
Note Lawu The Climber
According to the climbers in, Lawu (high (3,265 m asl) has three craters, two old crater to the north (commonly called Yellow and Ponds Ponds Lembung Selayur), and young craters in the south (called Crater Condrodimuko ).

Condrodimuko crater located in the south Lawu form the watershed that separates the province of Central Java and East Java province. The crater is spread fairly pungent sulfur smell, especially in the morning. In December 1978 there was an earthquake in Lawu, and in May 1979 the movement of magma in the stomach Lawu, resulting in earthquakes recorded up to 1000 times in one day, and that can be felt the tremors 50 times in 1 day. However, no changes in the natural and volcanic eruptions.

Monument atop Mount Lawu have often built as damaged. One reason is because of the earthquake that tectonic.Ketika Argodalem also not been built yet, in the form of zinc shacks like the Dutch era photo below.

Condrodimuko crater, crater Lawu in 1930. Before the 60s - early to climb the mountain path past the crater Condrodimuko Lawu this. However, because this pathway landslides then hiking trail has turned into what it is today. This crater in the morning the smell was overpowering, this crater lies near the Post 3 Cemoro Sewu. When climbing a mountain pass Cemoro Lawu Sewu ranging from 2 to Pos Pos 3 we will smell the sulfur.
Condrodimuko crater

Maninjau Eruption

Maninjau caldera formed by volcanic eruption is estimated occurred about 52,000 years ago. Deposits from the eruption have been found in the radial distribution around Maninjau stretches up to 50 Km to the east, 75 km to the southeast, and west to the coast this. Deposits eruption is expected to be distributed over 8,500 km ² and has a volume of 220-250 cubic Km. Caldera has a length of 20 km and a width of 8 Km.

Maninjau Lake is a lake in the district of Tanjung Raya, Agam, West Sumatra, Indonesia. The lake is located about 140 kilometers north of Padang, capital of West Sumatra, 36 kilometers from New York City, 27 kilometers from Lubuk cone, Agam regency capital.

Maninjau This is a volcanic lake located at an altitude of 461.50 meters above sea level. Maninjau extensive approximately 99.5 km² and has a maximum depth of 495 meters. Cekungannya formed due to volcanic eruption called Sitinjau (Mount Maninjau Purba).

Maninjau Purba erupted explosively around 60,000 years ago. This eruption ejects 220-250 cubic kilometers of volcanic spice spread to a radius of 75 kilometers from the center of the eruption.

Maninjau volcano growing in the Great Sumatran Fault zone was estimated to be three times larger eruption. Each of the caldera forming eruption interlocking to form Maninjau like today.

Traces of devastating eruptions Maninjau clearly exposed in the canyon Sianok near the tourist area of ​​Bukittinggi, West Sumatra. The large valley flanked by steep cliffs bright berona results pyroclastic clouds and deposition material Maninjau Ancient eruption fallout. Material thickness eruption clipped Rod Sianok it reached 220 meters.

Maninjau eruption sediment material was investigated HD Tjia Geologists from the University Kebangsaan Malaysia and Ros Fatihah, geologists from the University of Malaya as outlined in the blasts from the Past research impacting on Peninsular Malaysia (2008). Tjia who has taught at the Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB) have discovered three river terrace that indicates the occurrence of the three periods of the eruption. The first terrace is located about 16 meters from the river. The second terrace towering up to 200 meters and no coating.

"Tuff (eruption sediment material) which is very thick it shows a very large eruptions have occurred which bursts tepra (fragments of pumice) are so widespread, as is the case in Toba," wrote Tjia.

This occurs naturally in Sumatra, the island passed Fault given Semangko ie geological formation stretching across Sumatra island from north to south, starting from Aceh to Lampung Watermelon bay. Fault this form Barisan Mountains, a series of plateau on the western side of the island.

With the number of mountain on the island of Sumatra, the island is known as Bhumi from since ancient Malay, (malaya which means mountain).

The mountains in Sumatra caused the island is also rich in natural hot springs and geothermal energy store. Based on the research results F Junghun (1854), the USGS said, at least there are 23 hot springs in the valley along the Bukit Barisan potentially generate geothermal energy. Surveys conducted Geothermal Energy New Zealand Ltd. in 1986 even find 37 hot springs.

Not only that. Coincides with a row valley, snaking "golden belt" which memasyhurkan Sumatra as Svarnadwipa. From the Sanskrit word that means "Island of Gold" as stated in the Indian Nalanda inscription carved in 860 AD.

William Marsden, in his book, History of Sumatra (1783), mentions, Sumatra been suspected as Ophir, a fleet of Solomon (Sulaiman) took charge of the gold and ivory. Although allegations of Ophir according to Marsden baseless, this island is a gold producer incomparable.

Precious metals, primarily found in the central region of the island along the Bukit Barisan as in Martabe, Bangko, Rawas, Lebong, and Christmas. Minangkabau is regarded as the richest region so that the Dutch are setting up lodges in Padang.

According to Marsden, in the Minangkabau region alone there were no fewer than 1,200 gold mine site.

"A total of 283,000 grams-399 600 gram per year stored in Padang, on the free market, or in the hands of individuals. Meanwhile, approximately 28,000 grams marketed in Nalabu, on Natal approximately 23,000 grams, and in Mukomuko 17,000 grams," Marsden wrote.

TM Van Leuwen gives a more complete picture about the production of precious metals from Sumatra. Writing in the Journal of geochemical Exploration, 50th edition, 1994, he estimates, the total gold exploration dredged from Sumatra since the Netherlands until 1994 to reach 91 tons and as much as 937 tons of silver.

Long before the Dutch came and dredge gold from Sumatra, gold trade of the island is longstanding. In the book Barus Thousand Years Ago (2003), Marie-France Dupoizat and Daniel Perret said the rover Tome Pires in the early 16th century noted that gold traded around the port in Sumatra, especially in Barus.

The old port on the west coast of North Sumatra have been mentioned in the works of Ptolemy, Geographia, written in the 2nd century AD.

The eruption Samalas 8 times larger than the eruption of Krakatoa

During the eruption of the volcano Krakatau in 1883 is regarded as one of the most powerful of Indonesia. Similarly, the eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 that fall into the category of "the biggest eruption".

But it turns out Samalas in Lombok volcano eruptions produce eight times more powerful than Krakatoa and two times larger than Tambora. Samalas erupted between May and October 1257 and caused ash spread to the two poles of the Earth.
segara anak crater

Thanks to the eruption also occur significant climate change. Mentioned in some texts the Middle Ages, in the summer of 1258, instead of cold and rainy weather did not stop until the cause of flooding. Archaeologists also determine the precise death in 1258 for the thousands of bones were found in a mass tomb in London.

This explosion was recorded history of about 800 years ago, but for whatever reason, the record was forgotten. Thus the results of the research contained in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reported on Monday (30/9).

Samalas heritage trail "hunted" by researchers and thought "perpetrators" a major eruption in 1257 is Okataina volcano in New Zealand and El Chichón in Mexico. However, both candidates have failed in the calendar or geochemical trace.

The experts then succeeded in linking traces of sulfur and dust from the poles to the data obtained from Lombok. Including radiocarbon dating to the type of rock and ash were ejected. According to them, only Samalas "that meets all of a tick in the box".

"The evidence is very strong and interesting," said Clive Oppenheimer from Cambridge University, UK, told the BBC. Added Franck Lavigne, from Pantheon-Sorbonne University, France, initially they were puzzled to find "actors" were responsible for climate change.
magma out of the crater rinjani

But thanks to "fingerprint" in the form of geochemistry in ice cores, finally made the researchers managed to find the volcano. After the eruption, the caldera formed Segara Anak. The mountain itself had collapsed.

Chronicle Lombok
Notes about this eruption in Indonesia tells greater destruction. A text in the language Java, Lombok Chronicle, which is found in palm fronds, tells of a huge volcanic eruption which formed the caldera of Mount Samalas, Lombok.

This text tells the deaths of thousands of people because of ash and pyroclastic flows that destroyed Pamatan, the capital of the local kingdom. Although not mentioned the exact date, experts suspect that to happen before the end of the 13th century, according to the scientific evidence of the eruption.

It says Ben Andrews of the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program, the eruption of this kind happens only once every 600 years. And, added to the study in the journal, that Pamatan be one example of events "Pompeii of the East" --merujuk on a volcano that erupted in Italy in 79 AD by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

Agung Eruption 1963

Mount Agung is a type of monoconic strato volcano which reaches about 3,142 meters above sea level. The highest mountain in Bali, including young and last erupted in 1963 after a long sleep for 120 years.

Agung volcano activity history is not very well known. Historical records of eruptions began to appear in 1808. When the eruption is accompanied by steam and volcanic ash occur. The volcanic activity continued in 1821, but no record of it. In 1843, Mount Agung erupted again preceded by a number of earthquakes. The eruption also produced a volcanic ash, sand, and pumice.

Since the year 120, new in 1963 Mount Agung erupted again and produce a result that is very damaging. Based on the book written in 1979 Kusumadinata earthquakes before the eruption of the volcano is still active occurred on February 16 to 18, 1963. The earthquake is felt and heard by the people who live in the vicinity of Mount Agung.

Beginning of the eruption occurred on 19 to 26 February 1963. At the eruption occurred, some small boulders fall in Besakih which is located about 6 km southwest of the scene. Ashfall was also reported in the village of Rendang and Strait region that is located in the south of Mount Agung.

Lava flow started to occur and go down to the river Barak Power and located in the southern slopes of Mount Agung. The eruption of the mountain is also followed by a rain of lava that destroyed the main roads in the north of the camp and Tianyar. Since February 1963, on the night, lava flows into the northern slope towards the river Barak. Eruptions and natural events that ended in mid-March this raises the lava trail along 7 miles.

It turns out that the eruption of Mount Agung is still continuing on March 17, 1963, the effect is even more dangerous again. With successive eruption begins on the evening of March 16, the eruption increase in frequency is accompanied by clumps of larger eruption. Nearly 10 hours of the ongoing process by issuing a smoldering chunks of rock and heavy ashfall. Lava flows back occurs continuously.

Boulder-glowing in the darkness of the night between 5-8 cm in diameter sprayed in all directions as far as 6 miles from the crater. Output in the form of sand and ash that blanketed Mount Agung when it reaches 10-40 cm thick. Outputs are mostly distributed in the west of the mountain because the wind is blowing from the east to southeast.

On May 16, re-eruption that began with a small eruption weak and slow but eventually bigger and stronger. The incident occurred about four hours. Six rivers flowing lava flows that exist in the area of ​​Mount Agung on the south slope and the two rivers on the north slope.

Burning rocks with a diameter of 10-15 cm sprayed in all directions as far as 6 miles from the crater. Even this time the thickness of the ash that covered Mount Agung reach about 1 meter. After May 16, several lava flows still occur. The activity decreases with time until the end of 1963.

As a result of the eruption of Mount Agung is at least 1,148 people were killed and 296 were injured. Details of the death toll was 820 people died from the lava flow, 163 died as a blast of rock and ash, and 165 people were killed by lava. In addition to a thousand more people were killed, the eruption also damaged hundreds of hectares of farmland and forest.

Activity Mount Agung

According Daryono, S.Si., M.Sc., an employee of the Great Hall of Meteorology and Geophysics Agency (BMG) Denpasar, the outbreak of the eruption of Mount Agung issue unwarranted. Therefore, there is no report from the Department of Volcanology of the symptoms increased activity of Mount Agung.

In volcanic, sulfur smoke out of the crater is actually a natural and normal thing to remember Mount Agung volcano is still active. Wherever they are in this world all the volcanoes are still active will emit sulfur fumes.

In the science of volcanology, in general, the early symptoms of a volcanic eruption of the most basic is the presence of mechanical vibrations are recorded as a result of rising magma tremors vibration to the surface.

Another symptom is the presence of volcanic deformation of the body in the form of the body swelling of volcanoes, including the change in slope which can be monitored with special instruments. Physically also observable symptoms such as increased discharge hydrothermal hot springs, increased discharge of steam fumaroles, hot springs rise in temperature and the presence of chemical changes such as an increase in the content of SO2 or H2S.

To declare that a volcano is in danger and there will be an eruption is not easy, because it must go through the stages and monitoring procedures physically and visually intensive enough. Monitoring volcanic hazard conditions necessary for states to use several methods to determine the location, type and magnitude of activities.

Activities such as volcanic seismicity abnormal (unusual) can be expected to lead to an eruption. If so, a variety of studies monitoring and scientific investigations that support for eruption forecasting can be done more accurately.

Such studies should be designed to illustrate the epicenter, determine the location and speed of deformation determine whether there is the body of magma in the upper layers of the earth's crust. The more quality, and various types of data obtained has come closer to a more correct interpretation of the results.

In general, seismic monitoring is the main tool in monitoring the volcano. In order to get the information the possibility of large eruptions of relatively shallow magma chamber need to use a series of seismometers. If the layout can hiposenternya well known, the magma body shape can be determined based on the seismicity around him.

Visual observation consists of high observation of smoke, solfatar temperature, water temperature and water temperature hot crater. So if there is a striking change from the visual observations need to be aware of. However, all these early symptoms, none occurred on Mount Agung erupted rumored to be so excited by the wider community in Bali.

Galunggung Eruption in 1822,1894,1918, and 1982

Location: Java, Indonesia
Latitude and Longitude: 7:25 S, 108.05 E
Elevation: 2.168 m7154 ft)
Volcanoes Type: stratovolcano
Earliest Eruption: 1822, VEI = 5
Oldest Historic Eruption: 1822, VEI = 5
Most Recent Eruption: 1984, VEI = 2
Number of Eruptions in 20th Century: 3
Largest Eruption: 1822, VEI = 5; 1982, VEI = 4; 35 deaths
Notable Feature (s): Volcanic lightning

galunggung crater
Galunggung is a volcano with a height of 2,167 meters above sea level, located about 17 km from the center of the town of Tasikmalaya. There are several tourist attraction offered include tourist attraction and fascination wanawisata with an area of approximately 120 hectares under management Perum Perhutani. Other objects of approximately 3 acres in the form of hot water bath (Cipanas) complete with swimming pool, showers and soaking tubs of hot water.
Galunggung have Montane Forests 1200-1500 meters and Forest Ericaceous more than 1,500 meters.

The eruption in 1822

Recorded Galunggung had erupted in 1822. The early signs are known eruption in July 1822, where the water becomes turbid and muddy Cikunir.
to the top
Test results showed that the water was murky crater is hot and sometimes appear in the column of smoke from the crater.
Then on October 8 s.d. October 12, eruptions produce reddish sand rain very hot, fine ash, hot clouds and lava.
Lava flow moves to the southeast following the streams. The eruption killed 4,011 people and destroyed 114 villages, with land degradation to the east and south as far as 40 km from the summit of the mountain.

2. Eruption 1894

Eruption next Galunggung occurred in 1894.
Between October 7-9, eruptions that produce heat clouds.
Then on September 27 and October 30, there was lava flowing on the same river flow lava eruptions produced in 1822.This eruption destroys 50 villages, most of the house collapsed not because of the eruption directly, but are crushed by heavy ashfall.

3. Eruption 1918

In 1918, at the beginning of July, the next eruption occurs, preceded by earthquakes.

Eruption on July 6, this results in 2-5 mm thick ash limited in the crater and the southern slope.

And on July 9, recorded appearance of the lava dome inside the crater lake 85m tall with a size of 560 × 440 m were then called Mount so.

4. The eruption of 1982

The last eruption occurred on May 5, 1982 accompanied by the sound boom, glowing fire, and flashes of lightning. Eruption activity lasted for 9 months and ended on January 8, 1983.
1982 eruption

During the period of this eruption, about 18 people died, mostly due to indirect causes (traffic accidents, old age, cold and lack of food). Estimated loss of about USD 1 billion and 22 villages have been left without inhabitants.

Eruption during this period has also led to changes in the map area in a radius of about 20 km from the crater Galunggung, which includes Indihiang District, District and Sub-District Sukaratu Leuwisari.

Change the map of the region is mostly caused by the interruption of the road network and streams as well as the settlement area due to the abundance of cold lava flow of material in the form of rock-gravel-sand.
In the post-eruption period (ie circa 1984-1990) was a period of rehabilitation of disaster areas, namely to restructure the road network is disconnected.

Do dredging mud / sand on some streams and irrigation (especially Cikunten I), then the construction of check dams (cold lava pockets) in the area Sinagar as a 'fortress' safety abundance of cold lava flood into the area of ​​Tasikmalaya.

At that time also made use of sand exploitation Galunggung are considered qualified for the building and construction materials highway.

In the years since then until now the Galunggung sand dredging business is growing, even in early development (approximately 1984-1985) built a network of roads Railway Station KA Indihiang (Kp. Cibungkul-Parakanhonje) to check dam Sinagar as a special line to transport sand from Galunggung to Jakarta.

The explosion also makes British Airways Flight 009 faltered, in the middle of the road

Kelud Eruption History (Kelut)

A. Morphology Kelud
This volcano is included in the type stratovulkan (strato-volcano) with characteristics of an explosive eruption. Like many other volcanoes in Java, Kelud formed by the subduction of the Indo-Australian continental plate against the Eurasian plate.
kelud 1902

Kelud is one of the special mountain in East Java because it is sudden eruptions, very explosive and destructive.

It is evident in the historical record, that Kelud including mountain in Indonesia, which never takes many lives of thousands, but the type of eruption like this Kelud quickly subsided.

After eruptions, Kelud usually forming a crater width which is then filled with rainwater to form a crater lake.

The tops of which there is now a remnant of a major eruption in the past that brought down the top of the ancient.
Wall on the southwest side open so complex collapsed crater opened in that direction.
Kelud is the highest peak, positioned slightly to the northeast of the crater. Other peaks are 'Peak Gajahmungkur' on the west side and the 'Peak chippy' on the south side.
That's just one volcano, named Kelud. Indonesia is rich in volcanoes, and even became the country's most active volcanoes are universal.
Of the 127 volcanoes, half of the new intensively monitored. DR. Surono an expert on Indonesian volcanologist, likens the process of monitoring volcanoes in Indonesia, such as putting a small child on the edge of the pool.
"If we are careless, definitely go in the pool. If so, arguably due to chance, "said Surono.
Kelud eruption this time once again teach the importance of recognizing the position of the archipelago which circled the Ring of Fire, which requires us to keep alert.
Moreover, the character and nature of the mountain can also be changed. Earth's volcanoes are living organisms.
They are born, grow up, fall asleep, dead, then woke up and erupt. Volcano continues to evolve. Similarly, should we who live around him.

B.Activity Kelud History
Since the 15th century, Kelud has claimed more than 15,000 lives. The explosion was in 1586 more than 10,000 fatalities jiwa.Sebuah system to divert the lava flow has been made extensively in 1926 and still functioning until now after the eruption in 1919 killed up to 5110 lives due to cold lava flood swept settlements.
kelud 2012
In the 20th century, Kelud recorded erupted in 1901, 1919 (1 May), 1951 (August 31), 1966 (26 April), and 1990 (February 10-March 13). This pattern brings experts volcano on 15-year cycle for this eruption. Entering the 21st century, the mountain erupted in 2007 and 13 to 14 February 2014. This frequency change occurs due to the formation of lava plug in the mouth of the crater. Almost all recorded eruption is of short duration (2 days or less) and the type of explosive (VEI max. 4), except in 1990 and 2007 eruptions. 

C.Pre eruption of the 20th Century
The first and oldest effort in recorded history to overcome Kelud lava is building spatula.
Development spatula (or canal times) this is from Konto River to River Harinjing or now known as River Village Serinjing Siman, District Kepung, Kediri. (Kelud Revolution of Volcano, special reports Ring of Fire Expedition Compass, January 21, 2012).
magma flow

Inscription Harinjing or also called 'Sukabumi' are found around the village Siman noted that effort. Inscription with this year's figures were made approximately 921 AD during the reign of Tulodong

The inscription contains information about the construction of the dam (first dawuhan) and river channels (dharmma times), both built in the year 804 AD.
The artificial canal is currently known as Harinjing River, now called River Serinjing.
Meanwhile, since the year 1300 AD, a new record that is actively erupting Kelud has a range of a relatively short time (9-25 years), making it the volcanoes that are harmful to humans.
Meanwhile, since the 15th century, Kelud has claimed more than 15,000 lives.
Then on the next Kelud eruption in 1586 BC, there has claimed more than 10,000 people!                                                             
D. The eruption of the 20th century
In the 20th century, the eruption of Mount Kelud recorded has erupted five times, ie in the year: 1901,1919,1951,1966,1990,
This pattern brings experts to the volcano '15th annual cycle' for this eruption. Besides Hugo Cool in 1907 commissioned a dig a channel through the dike or the western part of the crater wall. The effort was successfully issued 4.3 million cubic meters of water.

1. Eruption 1919
When Kelud erupted in 1919, the volume of the crater lake water when it reaches 40 million cubic meters. The eruption in 1919 is among the most deadly since claimed up to 5,160 lives. Deadly massive eruption in 1919 is also damaging to 15,000 hectares of productive land.

It happened due to the lava flow Kelud pouring down until it reaches a distance of 38 km beneath it, although at times the Rhinos have built retaining weir lava since 1905 but can not accommodate.
Since the eruption of the system is then constructed drainage channel tunnel Crater Lake.
A system to divert the lava flow has been made extensively in 1926 and completed in 1926.
Overall built seven tunnels and still functioning until a few years in the future.

2. Eruption 1966
In the period after independence, the new tunnel was built again in addition to a long tunnel, after the eruption of 1966.

The new tunnel or tunnel that is 45 meters below the old tunnel.

Tunnel which was completed in 1967 it was named Tunnel Ampera. This channel serves to maintain the volume of the crater lake to keep 2.5 million cubic meters.

3. Eruption 1990

The eruption in 1990 lasted 45 days, from the date of February 10, 1990 until March 13, 1990. In this eruption, spewing Kelud 57.3 million cubic meters of volcanic material.
crater lake kelud 1980

Cold lava spread up to 24 kilometers from the crater lake and through the 11 rivers that disgorge from the mountain.

This eruption was shut Ampera Tunnel due to the large volume of volcanic material released by this mountain.

So it causes the Ampera Tunnel can not accommodate more number of existing materials, and clogged or blocked. Normalization process Ampera Tunnel was completed in 1994.

E. The eruption of the 21st Century
21st century, Kelud two times experienced eruption, in 2007. and 2014
Seen in this eruption compared to previous eruptions, there has been a change in the frequency of eruptions Kelud in the 21st century.

This eruption frequency change occurs due to the formation of lava plug located at the mouth of the crater of Kelud. Due to the blockage by the lava, then the pressure of the magma pushes out, become clogged.

1. The eruption of 2007

Volcanic activity is increased in late September 2007 and continued until November of the same year. Symptoms characterized by increased water temperature of the crater lake, an increase in seismic tremors, and changes in the crater lake of greenish color to white turbid.

The specificity of this volcano is the crater lake (until the end of 2007) which makes very fluid lava eruptions and endanger the surrounding population.

Status "watch" (highest) issued by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation since October 16, 2007 which implicates the population within a radius of 10 km from the mountain (approximately 135,000 people) who live on the slopes of the volcano to evacuate. However, the eruption did not occur.

Surono never felt the bitterness of scorn when he evacuate, including the entire staff of the Post Monitoring Kelud in 2007.

Having had somewhat subsided, Kelud activity again increased since October 30, 2007 with the rapid rise in water temperature volcanic crater lakes and shallow seismicity.

On November 3, 2007 around 16:00 lake water temperature exceeds 74 degrees Celsius, well above the normal symptoms of the eruption of 40 degrees Celsius, causing the temperature gauge was broken.

Vibration amplitude tremors with large (more than 35mm) causing inspectors to evacuate, but returned no eruption.

On November 3, 2007 around 16:00 lake water temperature exceeds 74 degrees Celsius, well above the normal symptoms of the eruption of 40 degrees Celsius, causing the temperature gauge was broken.

Vibration amplitude tremors with large (more than 35mm) causing inspectors to evacuate, but returned no eruption.

Due to the high activity of the unique symptoms Kelud history with the advent of thick white smoke rising from the middle of the crater lake.

Then followed by the emergence of the lava dome of the middle of the crater lake since November 5, 2007, and the dome continues to "grow" up to size 100 m wide (see photo below).

As a result of water in the crater lake Kelud continue to evaporate due to the heat coming from the bottom, eventually shrinking lake and just a puddle.

Experts consider that the lava dome that is what has been clogging of magma that the eruption is not imminent. Energy to be used to encourage the eruption of lava domes rest on the previous eruption in the year 1990.

Since the incident energy release activity on the wane, and on November 8, 2007 Kelud status downgraded to "standby" (level 3).

As a result, the crater lake Kelud practical "lost" due to the emergence of a large lava dome. What was left was a small pool of water murky brown color on the south side of the lava dome.

2. Eruption 2014

Increased activity occurred Kelud began back in late 2013. On February 10, 2014, increased to standby status (Level III)
On February 13, 2014, before erupting, recorded Kelud has experienced a shallow volcanic earthquakes as much as 190 times, and volcanic earthquakes as much as 442 times at 12: 00-18: 00 pm
At 21:15 pm, the status becomes Caution. Preparations on disaster has begun. Regions around 5 km from the summit crater has been sterilized point of human activity. Then, the radius emptying human activity widened to 10 km from the summit.

According to the recommendations of the Center for Volcanology, Mitigation, and Geological Disaster (PVMBG), Wates region to be a place of refuge purposes residents living within a radius of up to 10 kilometers from the lava dome. Due to the type of explosive eruptions such as in 1990 (in 2007 the type effusive, in the form of magma flow) could happen.
Sure enough, there was the displacement, on February 13, 2014 at 22:50 eruption type of explosion (explosive).
Kelud volcanic ash ejected in the eruption terdahsyatnya, as high as 17 kilometers! And threw a pebble as far as 25 kilometers!
Heard the sound of explosions reported to the city of Solo and Yogyakarta (200 km), even Purbalingga (approximately 300 km), Central Java
At 02:00 AM, the eruption of Mount Kelud began to subside. However, to prevent unwanted, BMKG still expressed sterile area with a radius as far as 10 kilometers from the summit of Kelud remain valid.
In Madiun and Magetan visibility to motorists or car is only about 3-5 meters due to falling volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud so many motor vehicles are running very slowly.
kelud lightning 01Di other hand many users of vehicles or people around Madiun was disrupted by the eruption.
In Kelud eruptions since Thursday night to Friday morning, (13-14 February 2014), has led to two people killed in a crash while evacuating and made 100 248 people had to move away and evacuated with a minimum distance of 10 kilometers.
Meanwhile some of the airport on the island of Java was closed due to volcanic ash thick. Airports were closed including the airport in Surabaya, Malang, Yogyakarta, Semarang, Solo even Bandung.
As a result, hundreds of flights were canceled. Parties sky temple and the airline claimed a loss of billions of dollars.
Four to five activity recording tool in the Post Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) around Kelud, Kediri, East Java also damaged.
Tools such as seismographs were damaged buried by rocks and dust material which is only five kilometers from the mountain.
Damage to the disturbing PVMBG tool to monitor the activities of the office PVMBG Kelud displayed through the screen, does not function at all. So pertugas further monitoring with manual equipment.

Mount Merapi History

Mount Merapi - Geological History

Mount Merapi is the youngest volcano in the series that leads to the south of Mount Ungaran. The mountain is formed due to subduction zones of activity in the Indo-Australian Plate under the Eurasian plate moves cause the appearance of volcanic activity along the central part of the island of Java. This current peak is not overgrown vegetation due to high volcanic activity. This peak grows in the southwest side of the summit of Mount Batulawang more tua.Hasil stratigraphic studies indicate the formation history of Merapi is very complex. Wirakusumah (1989) Geology Merapi divides into two major groups, namely Merapi Merapi Young and Old. Subsequent research (Berthomier, 1990; Newhall & Bronto, 1995; Newhall, 2000) found the stratigraphic units in an increasingly detailed Merapi. According Berthommier, 1990 based on stratigraphic studies, the history of Merapi can be divided into 4 parts:

PRA Merapi (+ 400,000 years ago)
Referred to as Mount Aunt with andesitic-basaltic magma ± 700,000 years old located on the eastern slope of Merapi including Boyolali. Aunt mountain rock is andesite-basaltic but does not contain orthopyroxen. Aunt peak has an altitude of about 2050 m above sea level with a flat distance between the peak and the peak of Merapi Bibi is now about 2.5 miles. Due to the very old age Mount Aunt experiencing strong alteration so fresh rock samples are hard to find.

Merapi OLD (60000-8000 years ago)
At this time nascent known as Mount Merapi, which is the initial phase of its formation with cone rudimentary. Extrusion initially took the form of basaltic lava that formed Mount Turgo and Plawangan approximately 40,000 years old. Product activity consists of basaltic andesite rocks with composition of awanpanas, brecciation of lava and lava.

Merapi MID (8000 - 2000 years ago)
Occurred some andesitic lava that make up the hill Batulawang and Gajahmungkur, which is currently visible on the northern slopes of Merapi. The rock is composed of lava flows, lava and pyroclastic brecciation. Merapi activity is characterized by effusive eruptions (melt) and explosive. It is estimated that explosive eruptions also occur with "de¬bris-avalanche" to the west of the left-horse poultice morphology with a length of 7 km, 1-2 km wide with a few hills on the western slopes. In this period Pasarbubar formed crater.

NEW Merapi (2000 years ago - present)
In Pasarbubar crater formed conical peak of Merapi, which is now known as Mount Newer which is currently at the center of the activity of Merapi. Bedrock of Old Merapi Merapi estimated age. While Merapi currently about 2000 years old. Great eruption of Merapi occurred in the past that the distribution of the material has been covered Sambisari located ± 23 km south of Merapi. Stratigraphic studies conducted by Andreastuti (1999) have shown that some major eruption, the eruption index (VEI) of about 4, Plinian type, has occurred in the past. The last major eruption with a fairly broad distribution of produce Selokopo tephra that occurred about 500 years ago. Smaller explosive eruptions observed an estimated 250 years ago which resulted in Pasarbubar tephra. Schematic cross-section of the geological history of Merapi according Berthommier, 1990
Map shows the distribution of sediment awanpanas Merapi 1911-2006. Only the eastern slopes of the free area of ​​flow direction awapanas in this period.

Volcanic eruption types can be categorized as weak Vulkanian type. Other types such as Plinian (eg eruption of Vesuvius in 79) is a type of power vulkanian with a very strong eruption. Merapi eruption is not so explosive however pyroclastic flow is almost always the case in every eruption. Visually activity of Merapi eruption seen through a long process since it began with the formation of lava domes, lava and incandescent awanpanas (pyroclastic flow).
Merapi including volcanoes erupt frequently. Until June 2006, the eruption of which is recorded at 83 times the incident. On average interval Merapi eruption occurred between 2-5 years (short period), while the interval of intermediate period every 5-7 years. Merapi had experienced the longest period of rest for> 30 years, especially in the early days of its existence as a volcano. Entering the 16th century recorded activity of Merapi started quite well. At this time it appears that time the longest break ever achieved for 71 years when the interval between 1587 until 1658.
Historical eruptions of Mount Merapi began to be recorded (written) since 1768. However, the history of a more detailed chronology of recent eruptions there in the late 19th century There is a tendency that the more frequent eruptions of the 20th century than in the 19th century This can happen karenapencatatan an event on Century 20 is relatively more detail. Monitoring volcanoes also was active since the early 20th century During the 19th century eruption occurred around 20, which means the interval Merapi eruption on average every five years. The eruption in 1872 is regarded as the last and largest eruption in the 19th century and 20 have resulted in Mesjidanlama crater with a diameter of between 480-600m. The eruption lasted for five days and is classified in class D. eruption voice sounded through Openwork, Madura and Bawean. Awanpanas flowing through almost all existing upstream at the peak of Merapi is Apu, Trising, Senowo, Blongkeng, Trunk, Woro, and Gendol.
Awanpanas and product material eruption destroyed entire villages which are above 1000m elevation. At that time the crater rim that happens to have elevation 2814m (; compare with the current peak of Merapi is located at an elevation of 2968m). Of events that have past eruptions, changes in body morphology Mount formed by the tongue of lava and eruptions are relatively larger. Mount Merapi is a young volcano. Some previous article mentioned that before there Merapi, has more dahuiu there is Mount Bibi (2025m), northeastern slopes of Mount Merapi. However, it is unknown whether the current volcanic activity took place in the mountain Aunt. From the tests, G. Aunt has a lifespan of about 400,000 years younger mean age Merapi 400,000 years. After the formation of Mount Merapi, G. Aunt buried partially so that the current peak is only partially visible. The next period is the establishment of a hill Turgo and Plawangan as the inception of Mount Merapi. Tests showed that both the hills around maximum 60,000 years old (Berthomrnier, 1990). The two hills dominating the south slope of Mount Merapi morphology.
At higher elevations there are units of lava that Gajahmungkur hill, Pusunglondon and Batulawang contained in the upper part of the body slopes of Merapi. The composition of these hills form the longest, 6700 years ago (Berthommier, 1990). These data indicate that the structure of the upper body of the Merapi volcano newly formed in the order of thousands of years ago. Pasarbubar crater is active crater at the center of the activity of Merapi before crests.
It is estimated that the top of Merapi, which is above the newly formed Pasarbubar started about 2000 years ago. Thus it is clear that the body of Mount Merapi higher and higher and higher with a fast growing process seems only a few thousand years ago. Body peak of Mount Merapi as the location of the active crater is currently the youngest part of Mount Merapi. Aperture crater happens once took different direction with the direction of eruption varies. However, most of the eruption leads to the south, west to north. At the peak of this active lava dome formed and sometimes smashed by the eruption. Active crater of Merapi change from time to time in accordance with the eruption. The growth of the lava dome always fill weak zones that can be a gap between the old and the lava lava earlier in the active crater dome growth is ciapat begins with the eruption or also after the eruption. If this case happens, the demolition of the old lava dome can occur by forming a new crater and the new lava dome growing in the crater eruption. Besides charging or dome growth can occur in the body of the previous lava dome or on the border between the old crater wall with previous lava. So it is not surprising kawahkawah peak of Merapi eruption in varying size and location. The distribution of the eruption also affects the morphology changes, especially on the lip of the crater and upper slopes. Center avalanches that occurred at the peak of Merapi, on the body of the lava dome is usually at the bottom of which is a result of terdistribusikannya pressure at the bottom because the top is still quite strong due to the load of material.
As with the bottom of the result of the insistence causing weak zones which then are centers where avalanches. When filling a gap either by growing dome is still limited in number, then the direction of lava can still be controlled in the gaps that exist in the vicinity. However, if the cracks have started full there will be deviations dome growth. So that the nature of the lava dome growth sideways (ie, the period from 1994 to 1998) will lead to changes in the direction of eruption. These changes can also occur in a relatively short period of time and from the same lava dome. The growth of the lava dome has grown from symmetric asymmetric shaped lava tongue. If the continuous growth and the speed is not the same, then the lava tongue will begin to form a wavy morphology eventually become parallel to each other but still in one body. Chronology of growth at some point will reach a critical point and distorted causing avalanches or avalanche dome. The chronology of this kind was observed in the years 1943 (April to May 1943).
Stacking of new materials in the area of ​​the peak due dome growth mainly comes from changes in the maximum height of the peak of Merapi. Several eruptions in history has changed the morphology of the summit include the period 18221823 eruption that produced the crater diameter of 600m, the period from 1846 to 1848 (200m), the period of 1849 (250 - 400m), the period from 1865 to 1871 (250m), 1872-1873 (480 - 600 m), 1930, 1961.
merapi 1935

Toba Eruption

Not only the people of Indonesia who know Lake Toba is located in North Sumatra, even the international community also began to many who know even learn about the origin of the existence of Lake Toba.

The eruption of Mount Toba is a volcanic eruption of the most powerful ever known on Planet Earth and nearly destroy generations of mankind, the eruption of a supervolcano in Indonesia this the URLs like the apocalypse in ancient times because almost destroy all mankind in his day, timing of events only a few people who survived. Awesomeness Toba eruption is very popular and is a great 3 most powerful volcano eruption on the planet and is rumored to also cover the sun for approximately 6 years.

As a result of eruptions are truly remarkable to cause Lake Toba is the largest lake in Southeast Asia and has a beautiful sight. Especially in the middle of Lake Toba on the island there is a call to the island of Samosir Batak origin is located.

Toba is a volcanic super giant volcano is an active volcano in the category of very large, estimated last erupted about 74,000 years ago.

The eruption of Mount Tambora in comparison with the all-powerful eruption of Mount Toba, the Mount Tambora is not nothing. Especially when compared to the eruption of Mount Kratakau that far behind the Mount Tambora.

So, for example eruption St. Helen in Washington, USA that erupted in 1980 have a number of eruptions on a scale of 1, then the Krakatoa volcano erupted in 1883 the scale 18, or 18 times bigger (1:18).

Eruption of Mount St. Helen, May 8, 1980

Meanwhile, when compared with the scale of Mount Tambora, eruptions St. Helen is very much due to the mountain Tambora erupted in 1815 scale 80, or 80 times larger than the eruption of St. Helen (1:80).

Moreover, if the eruption St. Helen compared with the last eruption of Toba, about 74-75 thousand years ago is very drastic magnitude scale is 2800, or 2800 times greater than the eruption of Mount St. Helen! Aka one in 2800 (1: 2800)

The eruption of Mount Tambora is the most powerful volcanic eruption ever known to human civilization

And the eruption of Krakatoa is the most powerful volcanic eruption ever recorded in the era of modern times.

While the eruption of Mount Toba completely undocumented in the book, but it looks scientific evidence in the present.

Scientific evidence

In 1939, the Dutch geologist Van Bemmelen reported, Lake Toba, which is 100 kilometers long and 30 kilometers wide, surrounded by a pumice stone relics of the eruption.

Therefore, Van Bemmelen concluded, Toba is a volcanic. Later, several other researchers discovered dust rhyolite (rhyolite) are the same age as rock Toba in Malaysia, even as far as 3,000 kilometers to the north to Central India.

Famous Yellowstone eruption is still inferior to the devastating eruption of Toba

Some oceanographers were reported to have found traces of Toba rocks in the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal.

The early researchers, Van Bemmelen also Aldiss and Ghazali (1984) have suggested Toba eruption created through a mahadahsyat.

However, other researchers, Vestappen (1961), Yokoyama and Hehanusa (1981), and Nishimura (1984), suspected caldera was created through several eruptions.

Researchers later, Knight and his colleagues (1986) and Chesner and Rose (1991), provides a more detailed forecast: Toba caldera created through three giant eruption.

Research about Toba is not over until now. So, there are still many mysteries behind the sleeping giant. One researcher Toba It is the latest generation of Indonesian Fauzi, a seismologist at the Meteorology and Geophysics.

Bachelor physics from the University of Indonesia's 1985 graduates earned a doctorate from Renssealer Polytechnic Institute, New York, in 1998, for his research on the Toba.

Being in three tectonic plates

Location of Mount Toba (now: Lake Toba), in Indonesia is prone to disasters. This is related to the position of Indonesia, located at the confluence of three tectonic plates, the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Pacific plates. As many as 80% of the territory of Indonesia, located on the Eurasian plate, which includes Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Banda.

The continental shelf life, every year they shifted or other impingement plate with a certain distance. Eurasian plate which is always a target continental plates.

Indo-Australian Plate Eurasian Plate mashing far as 5-7 cm per year

Indo-Australian Plate Eurasian Plate example mashing far as 5-7 cm per year. Or the Pacific Plate shifted relative to the Eurasian plate as far as 11 cm per year. Of the shift, there was a series of mountains, including the volcano Toba.

If there is a collision, the ocean plate containing sediment layer infiltrated beneath the continental plate. This process is then called subduction or infiltration.

Mount result of subduction, one of which Mount Toba. Although now no longer shaped mountain, remnants of eruptions still visible to this day.

Lake Toba is a caldera formed by the eruption of Mount Toba approximately three times the first 840 thousand years ago and the last 74,000 years ago.

The part that was thrown from the eruption reached an area of ​​100 km x 30 km square. The remaining area then form the caldera. In the center then appeared island.


Previous Mount Toba erupted three times.

The first eruption occurred about 800 thousand years ago. This eruption resulted in the south of Lake Toba caldera, covers an area of ​​Prapat and Porsea.
The second eruption which has a smaller force, occurred 500 thousand years ago. This eruption formed a caldera in the north of Lake Toba. Precisely in the area between Silalahi with Haranggaol. Of the two eruptions, the eruption ketigalah most powerful.
The third eruption 74,000 years ago produced the caldera, and into Lake Toba Samosir Island is now the middle.
Mount Toba supervolcano is classified. This is because Mount Toba has a large magma chamber that if a large caldera erupted once. Caldera volcano hundreds of meters, whereas the Supervolacano tens of kilometers.

Looks mountain scenery Toba caldera which is now called Lake Toba and Samosir island in the middle there is formed due to style up-lifting (removal). This is what led to the emergence of the island.

What is interesting is the gravity anomaly in Toba. According to the law of gravity, from one place to the other will have the same gravity when having a mass, and the relativity of the same height.

If there are other materials that are there with different masses, then its a different style. Imagine the mountain erupted.

Many of the material runs out, the mass loss and reduced its force. Then what happens up-lifting (removal). This is what led to the emergence of the island.

Magma beneath it kept pushing upwards, slowly. He had no power to erupt. This movement seeks to adjust to normal gravity.

It happened in the period of thousands of years. Naidoo only raised because the area was the weakest. While other areas of the caldera wall.

While the ancestors of modern humans, Homo sapiens, began to appear and stay in Africa 150000-200000 years ago. They began to migrate out of Africa 70,000 years ago and spread throughout the world. At approximately the same period, 74,000 years ago, there was a massive eruption of Mount Toba.

When linked with the Toba eruption, the findings also indicate that our ancestors were able to survive the catastrophe that could potentially destroy life.

Survival scenario is supported by evidence of a track record in the area of ​​DNA in populations Wallacea which showed a mixture of genes with a population of Greater Sunda region (which is now known as South-East Asia).

In addition, there are fossils and relics of ancient humans in Gua Niah, Sarawak. Of age, Niah findings indicate that humans are not destroyed by the eruption of the Toba.

Scientists strongly believe that all supervolcano in the world, including Mount Toba definitely will erupt again. But no one can ensure accurate when erupt again. That there are only estimates.

The explosion could happen tomorrow or thousands of years. Which is clearly a moment Toba lake created by the result of the eruption of Mount Toba definitely will erupt again.

Toba Now

Lake Toba is an amazing natural wonders on the island of Sumatra. It is hard to imagine a more beautiful place to visit in North Sumatra in addition to this lake. The atmosphere is cool refreshing, clear water expanse of blue, green mountains and stunning scenery is a small part of the image of a giant lake located 900 meters above the sea level.

Lake Toba is a lake cratered area of 1,145 square kilometers. In the middle of an island with an area dwells almost proportional to the area of Singapore. Lake Toba is actually more like an ocean than a lake considering its size. Therefore, Lake Toba is placed as the largest lake in Southeast Asia and the second largest in the world after Lake Victoria in Africa. Lake Toba also includes the deepest lake in the world is approximately 450 meters.

Samosir Island

Samosir Island is an island that is unique because it is a volcanic island in the middle of Lake Toba. The altitude of 1,000 meters above sea level. Although it has become a tourist destination for a long time, Naidoo is the unspoiled natural beauty. Samosir Island in the middle of this there are still two beautiful lake named Lake and Lake Aek Sidihoni Natonang. The area around Lake Toba has pine forests are arranged beautiful. On the outskirts of Lake Toba there are some seriously stunning waterfalls. Around Lake Toba you will also find belarang water baths.

Samosir Island you can also find misty mountains, crystal clear waterfalls to swim, and farming communities. Batak society friendliness will captivate you because wherever you go then immediately can find new friends.

In Parapat which is a peninsula that protrudes into the lake you can enjoy a spectacular view of Lake Toba. Parapat inhabited and Batak Toba Batak society Simalungan known to possess a cheerful and sociable, well-known also happy to sing songs about love that carefree yet soulful.

Tambora Eruption

Mystery and Timeline eruption of Tambora, Three Kingdoms Destroyed

Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island Indonesia
Last eruption                                    : Start, 10 April 1815 - Erupt, 17 April 1815.
Magma Spit                                     : 100 km³.
Removable ash (cubic)                     : 400 km³ of dust into space.
High ash                                           : 44 km from the surface of the ground.
Burst of ash                                     : 1300km.
Radius sound eruption                      : 2600 km
Deposition of pyroclastic flow          : 7-20m
Tsunami along the coast                   : the extent to 1200km, 1-4m high, in Maluku tsunami up to 2 meters
Direct victims of the eruption            : 117,000 killed.
Kingdom destroyed by the eruption  : Tambora kingdom, Pekat kingdom and the Sanggar Kingdom.

A Year Without Summer ...

10 April in 1815. Mount Tambora erupted with so powerful, even more powerful than Mount Krakatoa. Sound of thunder is heard up to the island of Sumatra on 10-11 April 1815 (more than 2,600 miles of Mount Tambora) was initially considered as the voice of a rifle shot. At 7:00 pm on 10 April, the eruption is getting stronger

Three rows of flame radiates and join. The whole mountain turned into a large stream of fire. Floating rocks with a diameter of 20 cm began to rain at 8:00 pm, followed by ash at 9: 00-10: 00 pm.

Hot pyroclastic flows flowing down towards the sea on all sides of the peninsula, destroy the village of Tambora. Explosions were heard until the afternoon on 11 April. Abu spread to West Java and South Sulawesi. The smell of "nitrate" wafted in Batavia and heavy rains accompanied by ash tephra fall, eventually returning Tambora eruption began to subside between the date 11 and 17 April 1815 and at the same time eliminate the three kingdoms at that time ....

Spread of volcanic ash as high as tens of kilometers affect climate across the entire planet, closing the sun for months and months ... Earth's north and south remains to be cold ... In Europe and North America was still covered with volcanic ash sun and make the area remains cool even in the summer. Millions of people are starving, lying sprawled corpse, all the plants wither and die as a result of the absence of the sun throughout the year. Snow never liquid, terrible .... The period known worldwide as "The Year that is not through the summer" or "A year without summer" ....

Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The mountain is located in the two districts, namely Dompu (south side of the leg portion to the northwest, and Bima (part of the south side of the slope to the northwest, and the feet to the east side of the peak to the north), West Nusa Tenggara Province.

Eruption History
Using radiocarbon dating techniques, stated that Mount Tambora had erupted three times before the eruption in 1815, but the magnitude of the eruption is unknown.

The third estimate of Tambora eruption occurred in the year:
- The first eruption: 39 910 BC, during ± 200 years
- The second eruption: 3,050 BC
- The third eruption: 740 BC, during ± 150 years.

The third eruption eruption has the same characteristics. Each eruption had a major eruption in the hole, but there are exceptions to the third eruption.
But on the third eruption, there is a pyroclastic flow.

In 1812, Mount Tambora become more active, with the peak of eruption occurred in April 1815.
This eruption large-scale entry into seven Volcanic explosivity index (VEI), the number of bursts of tephra of 1.6 × 1011 cubic meters.
Characteristics of eruptions including the eruption in the main hole, pyroclastic flows, loss of life, damage to soil and land, the tsunami and the collapse of the caldera.
The third eruption affect global climate in a long time. The eruption of Tambora activity after a new stop on July 15, 1815.
At the time of the eruption, some Dutch people in Surabaya noted in his diary said she heard the explosion, also some people in the Northwestern part of the Australian continent.
They thought it was just the sound of thunder because suddenly the clouds that make dim sunlight.
But they are not sure because they believe the cloud, it is smoke and volcanic ash.
And that is down to earth is not the end but the dust and small pebbles!
The eruption of Mount Tambora is the most powerful volcanic eruption ever recorded of all time in the modern era.

At the time of Mount Tambora erupted, local radius of approximately 600 miles of Mount Tambora pitch dark all day almost a week old.
Eruption that sounds, exceeding 2000 km distance and the Earth's temperature decreases to some degree that caused the Earth to cool down due to volcanic ash blocked sunlight for several months.
So the impact also to the regions of Europe and North America experienced a winter that long.
While Australia and South Africa region snowing in summer.
This event is known as "the year without summer" or the year without a summer.
The next activity then occurred in August 1819 in the presence of a small eruption of fire and noise rumble with aftershocks that are considered as part of the 1815 eruption.

The eruption was entered in the second scale on the VEI scale.
Around 1880 (± 30 years), Tambora erupted, but only within the caldera. These eruptions create small lava flows and lava dome extrusion, which then formed a new crater named Doro Api Toi in the caldera.

Mount Tambora is still active status. Small lava domes and lava flows still occur on the floor of the caldera in the 19th century and 20th century.

The last eruption occurred in 1967, which was accompanied by an earthquake and measured on a scale of 0 VEI, which means an eruption occurs without an explosion.

The total volume of issued Mount Tambora erupted terrific nearly 200 years ago to 150 cubic kilometers, or 150 billion cubic meters. Ash fallout deposits recorded as far as 1,300 kilometers from its source.

Researchers from the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja, writing, "characterization of Volcanic Deposits and Geoarchaeological Studies from the 1815 Eruption of Tambora Volcano", said a hot cloud distribution is estimated at 820 square kilometers area.

The total amount of combined heat clouds (pyroclastic) and rocks totaling 874 square kilometers. The thickness of the hot clouds an average of 7 meters, but there are up to 20 meters.

Dutch botanist, Junghuhn, in "The Eruption of G Tambora in 1815", writes, four years after the eruption, as far as the eye can see is pumice.

Sailing hampered by large floating rocks that meets the ocean. All that life has become extinct. Earth is so awful and empty.

Junghuhn make the description was based on reports Disterdijk who came to Tambora on 16 August 1819 with The Dutch Residence of Bima. Tambora eruption is awesome, even the strongest ever recorded in the history of modern man.

Tambora eruption magnitude, based Volcanic explosivity index (VEI), located on a scale of 7 of 8, only losing to the eruption of Mount Toba (North Sumatra), about 74,000 years ago, which is on a scale of 8.

Tambora is split now

The eruption of Mount Tambora is also noted as the most deadly eruption.

The death toll from this mountain reaches over 71,000 inhabitants but some experts put the figure at 91,000 souls.

A total of 10,000 people died as a direct result of the eruption and the remainder due to famine and disease of whack.

This amount does not include deaths that occur in other countries, including Europe and the United States, which suffered famine as a result of Tambora volcanic ash that caused the year without a summer in the two continents.

Even in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte lost the war because of the effect of Mount Tambora this.

Here's a summary of the report when the eruption of Mount Tambora testimony occurs, which is abstracted from the "Transactions of the Batavian Society" Vol VIII, in 1816, and and "The Asiatic Journal" Vol II, December 1816.

Sumenep (Sumenep), 10 April 1815
The afternoon of the 10th, being very loud explosion, one of the blasts even rocked the city, like a cannon shot.
By late afternoon the next day, the atmosphere is so thick that it had to use candles at 16.00.
At 19.00 hours on 11, the flow of the water receded, followed by swift water of the bay, causing the water level rises of up to 4 feet and then recede back within four minutes.

Banyuwangi (Banyuwangi), 10 April 1815
On April 10 evening, the more frequent explosions shook the earth and the sea with cruel. Towards morning, the explosion is reduced and continued to decrease slowly until it completely stops on the 14th.

Fort Marlboro (Bengkulu), 11 April 1815
His voice was heard by some people in the neighborhood on the morning of 11 April 1815.
Some leaders reported a firearm attack continuously since dawn. People were sent to the investigation, but did not find anything.
The same sound is also heard in the territories Saloomah, Manna, Paddang, Moco-moco, and other areas. A foreigner living in the Gulf Semanco writing, prior to the date of 11 April 1815 heard cannon fire all day.

Besuki (Besuki, East Java), 11 April 1815
We wrapped in darkness on April 11 from 16:00 until 14:00 on 12 April. Land covered with dust 2 inches thick.
The same thing happened in Probolinggo and Panarukan, continued until at Bangeewangee (Banyuwangi) 10-12 inch thick dust covered. Oceans even more severe consequences of the eruption. Eruption voice heard as far as 600-700 miles.

Grissee (Gresik, East Java), 12 April 1815
At 09.00, there was no light in the morning. The thick layer of ash covered patio door in Kradenan. 11:00 am forced to breakfast by candlelight, the birds start chirping approaching daylight.
Two scientists are investigating traces of civilization that has disappeared near Mount Tambora.
11:30 am starting to look sun broke through the thick ash cloud. 05.00 is getting brighter, but still can not read or write without candlelight.
No one who remembered or recorded in the tradition of such great eruption.
Anyone seen the incident as a transitional return of the old government.
Others saw it from the side of the superstitions and legends that are no Nyai Loro Kidul wedding celebration (Queen of the South) who was to marry one of her children.
Then he was fired artillery supernatural as a tribute. Residents call the falling ash derived from Nyai Loro Kidul ammunition.

Makassar 12-15 April 1815
Dated April 12 to 15 is still thin and dusty air, the sun was still blocked.
With a little and sometimes no wind at all. The morning of April 15, we sailed from Makassar with a slight breeze.
Above sea floating pumice stones, and the water was covered in dust. Along the beach, the sand looks mixed with black stones, fallen trees. The boat is very difficult to penetrate the Gulf Milky because the sea is completely covered.

the rest of the kingdom of Tambora civilization buried

Heinrich Zollinger, Junior Researcher Revisiting Mount Tambora in 1847
Heinrich Zollinger is the researcher who first set foot on the mountain after the Tambora show anger. Zollinger linger in 1847 or 32 years after a catastrophic eruption of the impact on climate change.
He climbed and climbed the cliff ruins when Tambora still warm wrapped in a puff of smoke that burst into the sky.
Heinrich Zollinger-researcher-first-mountain-identifiable Tambora-1847
Heinrich Zollinger bust that is remembered in Botanischer Garten Zürich (Roland zh / Wikimedia Commons)
Zollinger a Swiss botanist who designated the Netherlands as an official plant collectors in the Dutch East Indies archipelago country in 1842.
His job doing science expedition financed by the government. Residence in a rural villa Tjikoja-now-residency Cikuya Banten.
Initially he collects the data of plants in the environment Banten and Buitenczorg-now Bogor.
He merambahi from Anyer beach area, Tangerang City, to the valley and mountains, including Gede Pangrango, Salak, and Tangkubanperahu.
The following year he merambahi residence in the mountain god Guarantee, Semeru, Arjuna and the mountains in the other East Java.

royal porcelain plates and bowls Tambora

In 1844 Zollinger record of success at the peak of Mount Welirang, one of the twin towers in Java.

Collection prospectus collected plant Zollinger, one of them, sent to Professor Alexander Moritzi, naturalist Swiss origin who worked in Solothurn, Switzerland. Moritzi later helped him in terms of naming, numbering, and distribution.

In 1847, his adventures up to Sumbawa. Zollinger goal is to study the Tambora eruption of the past that have an impact on the local natural balance and recovery.
Heinrich Zollinger

Zollinger crawl Tambora slope until it reaches the lips caldera at an altitude of about 2,851 meters. According to him, before a catastrophic eruption in 1815, reaching a high Tambora nearly 4,000 meters!

Zollinger returned to Switzerland in 1847, then he served as director of the seminary in Kussnacht, Switzerland. New in 1855 he returned to Java as an independent botanist and plant collector. The second expedition in the Indies began.

The cost of traveling to remote Indian herbarium obtained through prospectus shipment to scientists in Europe. In addition to earning money on consignment services, Zollinger also receive protection during his travels in the form of life insurance.

Tambora crater this time, the diameter from 6.5 to 7 km, in the 1-1.2 km

Zollinger known as the author of numerous scientific journals and publications. He found many rare plant species, some of which are new species. Many thoughts have flowed from the tip of the ink, among other fields of geology, meteorology, mollusks in Rakata, plant taxonomy, and some related things about the vegetation in the Dutch East Indies.

Herbariumnya collection has spread in various herbaria in Switzerland and France. However, the main collection is now kept in the Nationaal Herbarium Nederland at Universiteit Leiden and Utrecht.

Zollinger great fever while on an expedition in Kandangan, a village on the southeast slope of Mount Tengger, East Java. He tarjangkit malaria-one of the biggest threats to the 19th-century explorer-later killed in the village on May 19, 1859. When the age of 41 years.

Now, his name is remembered in a plaque in the Botanischer Garten Zürich (Zurich Botanic Gardens), Switzerland. Some of the names of plants in Indonesia perpetuate his name.

For example, two of the hundreds of medicinal plants used around the area residents Hazy-Salak is Flacourtia Rukam Zollinger & Moritzi and Schismatoglottis rupstris Zollinger & Moritzi.

In his explorations around ten years in the Dutch East Indies, Zollinger has provided more than 270 specimens.

More than 20 species of plants, seaweed and mushrooms using the name "zollingerii" as part of the Latin naming. A great and useful contribution to science. (Mahandis Y. Thamrin / NatGeoInd)

Tambora crater